An electrochemical sensor is described for the determination of catechol (CT) based on the nanocomposite of lanthanum cobaltite supported on graphene nanosheets (LaCo/GNS). The nanocomposite was systematically examined by various analytical and spectroscopic methods. The LaCo/GNS-modified electrode exhibites good electrochemical activity towards CT determination compared to other modified and unmodified electrodes. The electrochemical signal was acquired at a redox potential of 0.21 (Epa) and 0.17 (Epc) Volt (vs. Ag/AgCl). The proposed electrode exhibits low detection limit (1.0 nM), wide working range (0.009–132 μM), and good sensitivity (5.68 μA μM−1 cm−2). The electrochemical nanoprobe has good selectivity over potentially interfering compounds. The electrochemical sensor was applied to the analysis of environmental samples with acceptable recovery. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of electrochemical determination of catechol in the environmental sample analysis using lanthanum cobaltite supported on graphene nanosheets.