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Landscape-wide pulse events predict trait-based responses among wetland birds in perennial channels of a dryland wetland.

Authors
  • Becker, Frowin K1, 2
  • Boyes, Rutledge S2
  • Wittmer, Heiko U1
  • Inman, Victoria3
  • Marsland, Stephen4
  • 1 School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington/Te Herenga Waka, Wellington, New Zealand. , (New Zealand)
  • 2 National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project, Maun, Botswana. , (Botswana)
  • 3 Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 4 School of Mathematics and Statistics, Victoria University of Wellington/Te Herenga Waka, Wellington, New Zealand. , (New Zealand)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Ecological Applications
Publisher
Wiley (John Wiley & Sons)
Publication Date
Nov 11, 2023
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1002/eap.2931
PMID: 37950629
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Morethetho wa go tshela ga metsi a makgobokgobo a a fitlhelwang mo nageng tsa komelelo, o rotloetsa mekgwa e dinonyane tse di fitlhelwang mo meeleng e e sa kgaleng ya makgobokgobo, di tsibogelang diemo ka teng. Makgobokgobo a a fitlhelwang mo dikgaolong tsa komelelo a botlhokwa mo go tshegetseng mefutafuta ya ditshidi, mme a lebaganywe ke matshosetsi. Go farologana ga ka fa metsi a makgobokgobo a tshelang ka teng, ke ntlha ya konokono e e tlhotlheletsang diphetogo mo nageng tse, ebile e laola ka fa dimela di dirang ka teng mo nageng eo ka bophara. Mefutafuta ya dinonyane tse di ikaegileng ka makgobokgobo e fitlhetswe e amiwa thata ke diemo tsa metsi tse di fetogafetogang, ka jalo mefuta e, e ka nna kaedi ya mekgwa e botshelo bo fetogang ka teng, segolobogolo fa re lebile phetogo e e sa tlwaelesegang ya loapi (Climate change). Mo mokwalong o, re sekaseka gore a diphetogo tsa maphashaphasha a metsi le melelo ya naga- nngwe ya dintlha tsa botlhokwa tse di rotloetsang mefutafuta ya ditshidi mo dinageng tsa komelelo - ele bokao jo bo netlameng go ka supa ka fa mefuta ya dinoyane tse di ikaegileng ka makgobokgobo di tsibogelang diemo ka teng mo moeleng wa makgobokgobo a Okavango, mo Botswana. Go re thusa ka ditshekatsheko tse, re dirisitse boranyane jwa ditlhaka (Generalized Additive Models) go rarabolola patlisitso e e dirilweng mo dingwageng tse thataro ka dinonyane tse di bonweng mo tseleng ya sekgele sa boleele ja 190 km. Tsela e ya tshekatsheko e ne e tsamaiwa gangwefela mo ngwageng. Re ne gape ra dirisa maranyane a lefaufau (Remote sensing) go akanyetsa bophara jwa maphashaphasha a Okavango le go meta sekgele le sebaka sa molelo wa naga. Metlhale e ya tshekatsheko, e ne ya dirisiwa go akanyetsa pele phetogo ya dipalo tsa mefuta e supa ya dinonyane tsa makgokgobobo. Dipatlisiso di supile fa mo dingwageng tse thataro go gatisitswe mefuta e e farologanyeng ya dinonyane tse di ikaegileng ka makgobokgobo di le masome a a ferang bobedi le borobabongwe (89), go akarediwa tsa sennela ruri di le masome a supa le borataro (76). Go supegile gape fa mofuta wa dinonyane tse di jang dijo ko tlase ga metsi e le tsone di palo ntsi. Tharabololo ya maranyane a dipalo (model fit) e kgonne go tlhalosa gore fa gare ga masome mane le borataro le ntlha tse robabobedi mo lekgolong (46.8%) le masome marataro le boferabobedi le ntlha tse tharo mo lekgolong (68.3%) ya diphetogo tse di bonweng tsa mefuta ya dinonyane e bakilwe ke diphetogo tse di farologanyeng tsa go tshela ga metsi a makgobokgobo le molelo wa naga le ka fa dintlha tse di amanang ka teng. Mabaka a a rotloetsang diphetogo tsa maphashaphasha a metsi ka lebaka lo leleele, ka kakaretso a supegile a dira botoka go supa tsibogo ya dinonyane gona le a lebaka le le khutshwane. Sekai, diphetogo tsa selekanyo sa maphashaphasha a metsi mo kgweding tse tlhano (5 months) pele ga dipatlisiso di akanyeditse-pele botoka ka fa ditlhopha tsotlhe tsa dinoyana di tsibogelang diemo ka teng. E supile tsibogelo diemo ya dinonyane e e bakiwang ke kamano magareng ga go tshela ga metsi le melelo wa naga. Re ne ra kgona go tlhalosa ka fa ditlhopha tsa dinonyane ka bongwe ja tsone di tsibogelang diemo ka teng, re dirisa kakanyetsong ya mekgwa ya tiriso ya ditsa tlholego. Ka kakaretso, maduo a rona a kaya fa metsi a sennela ruri a a bonwang mo makgobokgobong a naga ya komelelo, a a fa dinonyane tse di ikaegileng ka makgobokgobo lefelo la botshabelo, gape a senotse nonofo ya ditshekatsheko tsa peoleitho tse di dirwang ka dinonyane ka lebaka le selekanyo se segolo ebile se tseneletse. Maduo a rona a supile botlhokwa jwa tiriso ya ditlhotlhomiso tsa mofuta o mo makgobokgobong a a bonwang mo nageng tsa komelelo ebile a le mo diphatseng tsa kgotlelesego go tswa mo ditlhabololong le tse di amanang le phetogo e e sa tlwaelesegang ya loapi.

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