The effect of taurine addition to a commercial (taurine-free) soy-protein formula on the development of the visual cortex has been examined in 3-month-old rhesus monkeys. The thickness, number of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have been measured in the different laminae. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, total number of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or microglia between the groups, but there were some significant differences in some laminae as well as some qualitative differences. The numerical density of neurons in layers IV-C alpha and V-2 was significantly greater in the taurine-supplemented monkeys than in those fed the taurine-free formula; the numerical density of astrocytes in layer IV-A was significantly greater and in layer IV-C alpha was significantly smaller in the taurine-supplemented monkeys than in those fed the taurine-free formula. A number of other measurements in the two groups approached significance. These differences indicate that there are developmental disadvantages in the visual cortex of rhesus monkeys raised on a taurine-free human infant formula in addition to those previously reported.