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$\Lambda_S$CDM model: $\Lambda$CDM model with a sign switching cosmological `constant'

  • Akarsu, Özgür
  • Kumar, Suresh
  • Özülker, Emre
  • Vazquez, J. Alberto
Publication Date
Aug 26, 2021
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Inspired by the recent conjecture that the universe has transitioned from AdS vacua to dS vacua in the late universe made via graduated dark energy, we extend the $\Lambda$CDM model by a cosmological `constant' ($\Lambda_{\rm s}$) that switches sign at certain redshift, $z_\dagger$, and name it as $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM. We discuss the construction and theoretical features of this model, and find out that, when the consistency of $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM with the CMB data is ensured, (i) $z_\dagger\gtrsim1.1$ is implied by the condition that the universe monotonically expands, (ii) $H_0$ is inversely correlated with $z_\dagger$ and reaches $\approx74.5~{\rm km\, s^{-1}\, Mpc^{-1}}$ for $z_\dagger=1.5$, (iii) $H(z)$ presents an excellent fit to the Ly-$\alpha$ measurements provided that $z_\dagger\lesssim 2.34$. We further investigate the model constraints by using the full Planck CMB data, with and without BAO data. We find that the CMB data alone does not constrain $z_\dagger$ but CMB+BAO dataset favors the sign switch of $\Lambda_{\rm s}$ providing the constraint: $z_\dagger=2.44\pm0.29$ (68% CL). Our analysis reveals that the lower and upper limits of $z_\dagger$ are controlled by the Galaxy and Ly-$\alpha$ BAO measurements, respectively, and the larger $z_{\dagger}$ values imposed by the Galaxy BAO data prevent the model from achieving the highest local $H_0$ measurements. In general, $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM (i) relaxes the $H_0$ tension while being fully consistent with the TRGB measurement, (ii) removes the discrepancy with the Ly-$\alpha$ measurements, (iii) relaxes the $S_8$ tension, and (iv) finds a better agreement with the BBN constraints of physical baryon density. We find no strong statistical evidence to discriminate between the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM and $\Lambda$CDM models. However, interesting and promising features of $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM provide an upper edge over $\Lambda$CDM.

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