Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 (Pf) is a cheese starter and has several probiotic potentialities, including immunomodulation. This property results from the production of various beneficial metabolites, and from the presence of S-layer surface proteins (Slps). The "2-in-1" property, i.e. both fermentative and probiotic properties, makes Pf a suitable candidate to develop functional cheeses, in order to prevent inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this thesis was to study the impact of the cheese matrix on the immunomodulatory properties of Pf, mediated by its Slps proteins, compared to a culture on milk ultrafiltrate (MUF). In vitro studies suggest that Pf viability is affected by the delivery vehicle, cheese matrix or MUF during digestion as well as in the colon. We also showed that the cheese matrix limits Slps proteins proteolysis during gastric and duodenal digestion. The in vivo study showed that the two delivery vehicles, cheese and MUF, display different antiinflammatory effects. Finally, an industrial-scale Emmental cheese was manufactured using selected immunomodulatory strains of lactic and propionic acid bacteria. It also highlights the potential of using Emmental probiotic cheese as a lever to prevent inflammatory bowel disease.