There is increasing evidence indicating that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF). During times of war and natural disasters, myoglobinuric ARF can assume epidemic proportions. Thus, early and effective renoprotective treatments are of utmost importance. It has been shown that L-carnitine, used as a safe and effective nutritional supplement for more than three decades, is effective in preventing renal injury in many renal injury models involving oxidative stress. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of L-carnitine in an experimental model of myoglobinuric ARF. Four groups of rats were employed in this study: group 1 served as a control; group 2 was given glycerol (10 mL/kg, i.m.); group 3 was given glycerol plus L-carnitine (100 mg/kg, i.p.), starting at the same time as the glycerol injection; group 4 was given glycerol plus L-carnitine (100 mg/kg, i.p.), starting 48h before the glycerol injection. After glycerol injections, the i.p. injections of L-carnitine were repeated every 24h for four days. Ninety-six hours after glycerol injections, blood samples and kidney tissues were taken from the anesthetized rats. Urea and creatinine levels in plasma, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in urine, and malondialdehyde levels and catalase enzyme activity in kidney tissue were determined. Histopathological changes and iron accumulation in the kidney tissue were evaluated. In this study, glycerol administration led to marked renal oxidative stress, as well as severe functional and morphological renal deterioration. L-carnitine, possibly via its antioxidant properties, ameliorates glycerol-induced myoglobinuric kidney injury.