We report two sibs, the ninth and tenth cases of a distinctive familial skeletal dysplasia. Designated kyphomelic dysplasia, the condition is a short limbed dwarfism characterised by very short angulated femora, variable bowing of other long bones, irregular, flared metaphyses, restricted joint mobility, a small thorax and short trunk, a normal cranium and psychomotor development, and a tendency for the bowing to improve with age in survivors. The first born of our cases died of pneumonia at 2 1/2 months of age and is known to us by radiographs only. The second case was under our care from birth. He died aged 13 months after developing a pure red cell aplasia in the second half of infancy, which spontaneously recovered about the time of onset of his final illness. These cases are discussed in relation to previous reports.