This study examined knowledge about dyslexia among Chinese-speaking early literacy teachers in Mainland China. A total of 516 teachers, including 203 kindergarten teachers from developed regions (KDRs), 166 primary school teachers from developed regions (PDRs), and 147 primary school teachers from less developed regions (PLDRs), completed a survey measuring knowledge about dyslexia in three domains: general information, symptoms/diagnosis, and treatment. PLDRs scored significantly lower on the total scale and each of the subscales than KDRs and PDRs, with the latter two not significantly different from each other. The percentages of misunderstandings and lack of knowledge ("do not know" response) were higher for PLDRs than for KDRs or PDRs. In general, compared with alphabetic language-speaking teachers in developed countries reported in previous studies, Chinese teachers showed less knowledge about dyslexia but similar misunderstandings. Prior exposure to children with dyslexia explained significant variance in Chinese teachers' knowledge about dyslexia, indicating that when specialized training is not available, learning from practice is a major source of knowledge about dyslexia. Findings of this study point to the universal need of providing explicit training on dyslexia for teachers, particularly in less developed regions where teacher knowledge is poorer. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.