Murine models have made valuable contributions to our understanding of iron metabolism. Investigation of mice with inherited forms of anemia has led to the discovery of novel proteins involved in iron homeostasis. A growing number of murine models are being developed to investigate mitochondrial iron metabolism. Mouse strains are available for the major forms of hereditary hemochromatosis. Findings in murine models support the concept that the pathogenesis of nearly all forms of hereditary hemochromatosis involves inappropriately low expression of hepcidin. The availability of mice with floxed iron-related genes allows the study of the in vivo consequences of cell-selective deletion of these genes.