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The KM3NeT potential for the next core-collapse supernova observation with neutrinos

Authors
  • Aiello, S.1
  • Albert, A.2, 3
  • Garre, S. Alves4
  • Aly, Z.5
  • Ambrosone, A.6, 7
  • Ameli, F.8
  • Andre, M.9
  • Androulakis, G.10
  • Anghinolfi, M.11
  • Anguita, M.12
  • Anton, G.13
  • Ardid, M.14
  • Ardid, S.14
  • Aublin, J.15
  • Bagatelas, C.10
  • Baret, B.15
  • Pree, S. Basegmez du16
  • Bendahman, M.17
  • Benfenati, F.18, 19
  • Berbee, E.16
  • And 226 more
  • 1 INFN, Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, 95123, Italy , Catania (Italy)
  • 2 Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg, 67000, France , Strasbourg (France)
  • 3 Université de Strasbourg, Université de Haute Alsace, GRPHE, 34, Rue du Grillenbreit, Colmar, 68008, France , Colmar (France)
  • 4 IFIC-Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València), c/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna, Valencia, 46980, Spain , Paterna (Spain)
  • 5 Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France , Marseille (France)
  • 6 INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia ed. G, Naples, 80126, Italy , Naples (Italy)
  • 7 Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Dip. Scienze Fisiche “E. Pancini”, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia ed. G, Naples, 80126, Italy , Naples (Italy)
  • 8 INFN, Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome, 00185, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 9 Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Laboratori d’Aplicacions Bioacústiques, Centre Tecnològic de Vilanova i la Geltrú, Avda. Rambla Exposició, s/n, Vilanova i la Geltrú, 08800, Spain , Vilanova i la Geltrú (Spain)
  • 10 NCSR Demokritos, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens, 15310, Greece , Athens (Greece)
  • 11 INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genoa, 16146, Italy , Genoa (Italy)
  • 12 University of Granada, Granada, 18071, Spain , Granada (Spain)
  • 13 Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erwin-Rommel-Straße 1, Erlangen, 91058, Germany , Erlangen (Germany)
  • 14 Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf, 1, Gandia, 46730, Spain , Gandia (Spain)
  • 15 Université de Paris, CNRS Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Paris, 75013, France , Paris (France)
  • 16 Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam, 1009 DB, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 17 University Mohammed V in Rabat, 4 av. Ibn Battouta, Rabat, R.P. 10000, Morocco , Rabat (Morocco)
  • 18 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, v.le C. Berti-Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, 40127, Italy , Bologna (Italy)
  • 19 Università di Bologna, v.le C. Berti-Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, 40127, Italy , Bologna (Italy)
  • 20 KVI-CART University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands , Groningen (Netherlands)
  • 21 INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, Catania, 95123, Italy , Catania (Italy)
  • 22 North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa , Potchefstroom (South Africa)
  • 23 Unidad Mixta IEO-UPV, C/ Paranimf, 1, Gandia, 46730, Spain , Gandia (Spain)
  • 24 University Mohammed I, Oujda, R.P. 60000, Morocco , Oujda (Morocco)
  • 25 Università di Salerno e INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano, 84084, Italy , Fisciano (Italy)
  • 26 ISS, Atomistilor 409, Măgurele, 077125, Romania , Măgurele (Romania)
  • 27 University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1090 GE, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 28 TNO, Technical Sciences, Delft, 2600 AD, The Netherlands , Delft (Netherlands)
  • 29 Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Viale Lincoln 5, Caserta, 81100, Italy , Caserta (Italy)
  • 30 Università La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome, 00185, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 31 Università di Bologna, Via dell’Università 50, Cesena, 47522, Italy , Cesena (Italy)
  • 32 Cadi Ayyad University, Av. My Abdellah, Marrakech, 40000, Morocco , Marrakech (Morocco)
  • 33 University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa , Johannesburg (South Africa)
  • 34 Università di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, 95123, Italy , Catania (Italy)
  • 35 INFN, LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40, Frascati, 00044, Italy , Frascati (Italy)
  • 36 INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, Bari, 70126, Italy , Bari (Italy)
  • 37 Université de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler-La Chantrerie, Nantes, France , Nantes (France)
  • 38 University of Bari, Via Amendola 173, Bari, 70126, Italy , Bari (Italy)
  • 39 Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genoa, 16146, Italy , Genoa (Italy)
  • 40 University Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Straße 31, Würzburg, 97074, Germany , Würzburg (Germany)
  • 41 Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia , Penrith (Australia)
  • 42 Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon-CC 72, Montpellier Cédex 05, 34095, France , Montpellier Cédex 05 (France)
  • 43 University La Sapienza, Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome, 00185, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 44 INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56127, Italy , Pisa (Italy)
  • 45 University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, Münster, 48149, Germany , Münster (Germany)
  • 46 NIOZ (Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research), Den Burg, Texel, 1790 AB, The Netherlands , Texel (Netherlands)
  • 47 Curtin University, Bentley, WA, 6102, Australia , Bentley (Australia)
  • 48 National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, 02-093, Poland , Warsaw (Poland)
  • 49 Tbilisi State University, 3, Chavchavadze Ave., Tbilisi, 0179, Georgia , Tbilisi (Georgia)
  • 50 Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3508 TA, The Netherlands , Utrecht (Netherlands)
  • 51 Institut Universitaire de France, 1 rue Descartes, Paris, 75005, France , Paris (France)
  • 52 University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa , Auckland Park (South Africa)
  • 53 Accademia Navale di Livorno, Viale Italia 72, Livorno, 57100, Italy , Livorno (Italy)
  • 54 INFN, CNAF, v.le C. Berti-Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, 40127, Italy , Bologna (Italy)
  • 55 Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Sand 1, Tübingen, 72076, Germany , Tübingen (Germany)
  • 56 Leiden University, Leiden, 2300 RA, The Netherlands , Leiden (Netherlands)
  • 57 Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56127, Italy , Pisa (Italy)
  • 58 Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Remeis Sternwarte, Sternwartstraße 7, Bamberg, 96049, Germany , Bamberg (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The European Physical Journal C
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
May 24, 2021
Volume
81
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-021-09187-5
Source
Springer Nature
License
Green

Abstract

The KM3NeT research infrastructure is under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of two water Cherenkov neutrino detectors, ARCA and ORCA, aimed at neutrino astrophysics and oscillation research, respectively. Instrumenting a large volume of sea water with ∼6200\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sim {6200}$$\end{document} optical modules comprising a total of ∼200,000\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sim {200{,}000}$$\end{document} photomultiplier tubes, KM3NeT will achieve sensitivity to ∼10MeV\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sim {10} \ \mathrm{MeV}$$\end{document} neutrinos from Galactic and near-Galactic core-collapse supernovae through the observation of coincident hits in photomultipliers above the background. In this paper, the sensitivity of KM3NeT to a supernova explosion is estimated from detailed analyses of background data from the first KM3NeT detection units and simulations of the neutrino signal. The KM3NeT observational horizon (for a 5σ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$5\,\sigma $$\end{document} discovery) covers essentially the Milky-Way and for the most optimistic model, extends to the Small Magellanic Cloud (∼60kpc\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sim {60} \ \mathrm{kpc}$$\end{document}). Detailed studies of the time profile of the neutrino signal allow assessment of the KM3NeT capability to determine the arrival time of the neutrino burst with a few milliseconds precision for sources up to 5–8 kpc away, and detecting the peculiar signature of the standing accretion shock instability if the core-collapse supernova explosion happens closer than 3–5 kpc, depending on the progenitor mass. KM3NeT’s capability to measure the neutrino flux spectral parameters is also presented.

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