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KLF2 (kruppel-like factor 2 [lung]) regulates osteoclastogenesis by modulating autophagy.

  • Laha, Dipranjan1
  • Deb, Moonmoon1
  • Das, Hiranmoy1
  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USA.
Published Article
Landes Bioscience
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2019
DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1596491
PMID: 30894058


Macroautophagy/autophagy is involved in myeloid cellular repair, destruction, and osteoclast differentiation; conversely, KLF2 (kruppel-like factor 2 [lung]) regulates myeloid cell activation and differentiation. To investigate the specific role of KLF2 in autophagy, osteoclastic differentiation was induced in monocytes in presence or absence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), KLF2 inducer geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI298), and adenoviral overexpression of KLF2. We found that the number of autophagic cells and multinucleated osteoclasts were significantly decreased in presence of 3-MA, GGTI298, and KLF2 overexpressed cells indicating involvement of KLF2 in these processes. In addition, autophagy-related protein molecules were significantly decreased after induction of KLF2 during the course of osteoclastic differentiation. Furthermore, induction of arthritis in mice reduced the level of Klf2 in monocytes, and enhanced autophagy during osteoclastic differentiation. Mechanistically, knocking down of KLF2 increased the level of Beclin1 (BECN1) expression, and conversely, KLF2 over-expression reduced the level of BECN1 in monocytes. Moreover, 3-MA and GGTI298 both reduced myeloid cell proliferation concomitantly upregulating senescence-related molecules (CDKN1A/p21 and CDKN1B/p27kip1). We further confirmed epigenetic regulation of Becn1 by modulating Klf2; knocking down of Klf2 increased the levels of histone activation marks H3K9 and H4K8 acetylation in the promoter region of Becn1; and overexpression of Klf2 decreased the levels of H4K8 and H3K9 acetylation. In addition, osteoclastic differentiation also increased levels of H3K9 and H4K8 acetylation in the promoter region of Becn1. Together these findings for the first time revealed that Klf2 critically regulates Becn1-mediated autophagy process during osteoclastogenesis.Abbreviations: ACP5/TRAP: acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant; Ad-KLF2: adenoviral construct of KLF2; ATG3: autophagy related 3; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; ATG12: autophagy related 12; BECN1: beclin 1, autophagy related; C57BL/6: inbred mouse strain C57 black 6; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; CSF1/MCSF: colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage); CTSK: cathepsin K; EV: empty vector; GGTI298: geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor; H3K9Ac: histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation; H4K8Ac: histone H4 lysine 8 acetylation; K/BxN mice: T cell receptor (TCR) transgene KRN and the MHC class II molecule A(g7) generates K/BxN mice; KLF2: kruppel-like factor 2 (lung); 3MA: 3-methyladenine; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MDC: monodansylcadaverine; NFATc1: nuclear factor of activated T cells 1; NFKB: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells; p21/CDKN1A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; p27kip1/CDKN1B: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PtdIns3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; siKlf2: small interfering KLF2 ribonucleic acid; NS: non-specific; RAW 264.7: abelson murine leukemia virus transformed macrophage cell line; TNFSF11/RANKL: tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11; TSS: transcriptional start site; UCSC: University of California, Santa Cruz.

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