Background: The NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network) Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN guidelines) recommend radical resection for T1–2N0M0 patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). However, only about 5% of patients with small cell cancer (SCLC) were initially diagnosed as T1–2N0M0. The purpose of our study was to analyze and compare the effects of the comprehensive treatment including radical surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy on the prognosis of patients with LS-SCLC. Methods: We comprehensively reviewed the medical data of patients with SCLC diagnosed by pathology in our hospital from January 2011 to April 2018. The Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University approved the study. Finally, 50 patients with good follow-up and complete medical data were selected as the surgical group (S group). According to the clinical characteristics of the patients in the S group, 102 LS-SCLC patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the same period were included in the CCRT group (concurrent chemoradiotherapy group) as the control group. Then according to the orders of the adjuvant treatments, the patients in the S group were divided into the SA group (radical surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy + adjuvant radiotherapy group, 30 cases in total) and the NS group (neoadjuvant chemotherapy + radical surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy ± adjuvant radiotherapy group, 20 cases in total) for subgroup analysis. The SPSS 23.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and the t test was used for group comparison; Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. P < 0.05 demonstrates a statistically significant difference. Results: The median progress-free survival (PFS) in the S group (73 months) was significantly better than that in the CCRT group (10.5 months, P < 0.0001), and the median overall survival (OS) in the S group (79 months) was also significantly better than that in the CCRT group (23 months, P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the NS group and the SA group. Conclusions: For LS-SCLC patients, the comprehensive treatment including radical surgery (radical surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy ± adjuvant radiotherapy/neoadjuvant chemotherapy + radical surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy ± adjuvant radiotherapy) may be superior to concurrent chemoradiotherapy.