Limb ischemia is a major complication of thromboembolic diseases. Diabetes worsens prognosis by impairing neovascularization. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of the kallikrein-kinin system aggravates limb ischemia in nondiabetic animals, whereas angiotensin I-converting enzyme/kininase II inhibition improves outcome. The role of kinins in limb ischemia in the setting of diabetes is not documented. We assessed whether selective activation of kinin receptors by pharmacological agonists can influence neovascularization in diabetic mice with limb ischemia and have a therapeutic effect. Selective pseudopeptide kinin B1 or B2 receptor agonists resistant to peptidase action were administered by osmotic minipumps at a nonhypotensive dosage for 14 days after unilateral femoral artery ligation in mice previously rendered diabetic by streptozotocin. Comparison was made with ligatured, nonagonist-treated nondiabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes reduced neovascularization, assessed by microangiography and histologic capillary density analysis, by roughly 40%. B1 receptor agonist or B2 receptor agonist similarly restored neovascularization in diabetic mice. Neovascularization in agonist-treated diabetic mice was indistinguishable from nondiabetic mice. Both treatments restored blood flow in the ischemic hindfoot, measured by laser-Doppler perfusion imaging. Macrophage infiltration increased 3-fold in the ischemic gastrocnemius muscle during B1 receptor agonist or B2 receptor agonist treatment, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level increased 2-fold. Both treatments increased, by 50-100%, circulating CD45/CD11b-positive monocytes and CD34(+)/VEGFR2(+) progenitor cells. Thus, selective pharmacological activation of B1 or B2 kinin receptor overcomes the effect of diabetes on postischemic neovascularization and restores tissue perfusion through monocyte/macrophage mobilization. Kinin receptors are potential therapeutic targets in limb ischemia in diabetes.