The kinetics of antibody synthesis was investigated after intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and footpad infection of various strains of mice with herpes simplex virus. Immunoglobulin M antibodies appeared 5 days after and immunoglobulin G antibodies appeared 10 to 12 days after intraperitoneal infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. The major histocompatibility complex and the background genome of inbred mice were not found to have a systematical influence on antibody synthesis. Female mice, however, consistently produced more antibodies than did male if the infection was done intraperitoneally, but not if it was done subcutaneously or into footpads. Castration considerably increased the amount of antibodies produced by male mice. The difference in antibody formation between females and males could be abolished by injection of silica; moreover, antibody titers were enhanced by this treatment. This has also been found by immunization with a Formalin-inactivated herpes simplex virus vaccine. The effect of silica in enhancing antibody formation could be observed up to 12 days after infection. Infectious virus could be detected up to 2 days after infection, and herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody-stimulating antigens could be detected up to 4 days in ultrasonicates of macrophages. The assumption is made that androgen-sensitive cell populations, including macrophages and their soluble products, are involved in antibody-depressing mechanisms.