The hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ion adsorption properties were conferred to porous silica beads by introducing alkylamine chains through functionalization with an aminosilane coupling agent, [3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl]triethoxysilane (AEAPTES), or with an epoxysilane coupling agent, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)triethoxysilane (GOPTES), and polyfunctional amine compounds or poly-ethylenimines (PEIs). The presence of amino groups on the silica beads was confirmed by XPS and the amount of amino groups increased to 0.270 mmol/g by increasing the AEAPTES concentration and/or reaction time. The adsorption capacity of the silica beads functionalized with AEAPTES was the maximum at the initial pH value of 3.0 and the initial adsorption rate increased with an increase in the temperature. The adsorption capacity increased with an increase in the amount of amino groups at pH 3.0 and 30 °C. The adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model and was well expressed by the Langmuir isotherm. These results support that Cr(VI) ion adsorption is accomplished through the electrostatic interaction between protonated amino groups and HCrO4− ions. In addition, the adsorption capacity further increased to 0.192–0.320 mmol/g by treating the GOPTES-treated silica beads with triethylenetetramine, pentaethylenehexamine, or PEI. These empirical, equilibria, and kinetic aspects obtained in this study support that the porous silica-based adsorbents prepared in this study can be applied to the removal of Cr(VI) ions.