The SEM-pictures represent a keratoconus in a 59-year-old patient with a Descemet rupture, which had led to a so-called Kammerwassereinbruch, where the failure of the endothelial structure has become manifest in the epithelium. In the Descemet-rupture the onset of stromal pathology is observable, while outside the rupture severe degradation of endothelial cells is seen. This is manifested as cell-membrane perforation, loss of cell contents and oedema formation in general. On the epithelial side the pathology is expressed as cell-membrane degradation and the presence of very irregularly shaped, sometimes swollen and in other cases shrunken, epithelial cells, in particular in the areas of the surface depressions. The topographical correspondence of these pathological phenomena on the endothelial and the epithelial sides is stressed.