738 male and 717 female adolescents and young adults aged 10-19 years in Ishozi ward of Kagera rural community were surveyed for HIV infection. Only 36 males and 70 females admitted to having experienced sexual intercourse, with 29 of these experienced females being married. 3.2% of the sample was seropositive. 30 of these 47 with HIV, or 63.8%, were aged 10-15. In fact, subjects in the 10-12, 13-15,, and 16-19 year age groups were infected in almost equal proportions, as were males and females. Since customary laws prohibit sexual intercourse before marriage for both sexes, fear may have driven respondents to underreport the extent of their sexual activity. Some correlation may also exist between school enrollment and HIV infection, with teachers or other school workers being vectors of infection. No significant association with HIV seropositivity was, however, found with potential factors for infection such as non-school enrollment, illicit injections, blood transfusion, and sexually transmitted diseases. Special care should be taken when interviewing adolescents on sensitive issues such as those associated with HIV infection to elicit as much information as possible on potential risk factors which may be present for becoming infected with HIV.