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Job-exposure matrix for historical exposures to rubber dust, rubber fumes and n-Nitrosamines in the British rubber industry.

Authors
  • Hidajat, Mira1
  • McElvenny, Damien Martin2
  • Mueller, William2
  • Ritchie, Peter2
  • Cherrie, John W2, 3
  • Darnton, Andrew4
  • Agius, Raymond M5
  • Kromhout, Hans6
  • de Vocht, Frank1
  • 1 Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
  • 2 Research Division, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, UK.
  • 3 Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and -Bioengineering, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
  • 4 Statistics and Epidemiology Unit, Health and Safety Executive, Bootle, UK.
  • 5 Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
  • 6 Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Publisher
BMJ
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2019
Volume
76
Issue
4
Pages
259–267
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2018-105182
PMID: 30772817
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To develop a quantitative historical job-exposure matrix (JEM) for rubber dust, rubber fumes and n-Nitrosamines in the British rubber industry for 1915-2002 to estimate lifetime cumulative exposure (LCE) for a cohort of workers with 49 years follow-up. Data from the EU-EXASRUB database-rubber dust (n=4157), rubber fumes (n=3803) and n-Nitrosamines (n=10 115) collected between 1977 and 2002-were modelled using linear mixed-effects models. Sample year, stationary/personal measurement, industry sector and measurement source were included as fixed explanatory variables and factory as random intercept. Model estimates and extrapolations were used to construct a JEM covering all departments in both sectors of the rubber manufacturing industries for the years 1915-2002. JEM-estimates were linked to all cohort members to calculate LCE. Sensitivity analyses related to assumptions about extrapolation of time trends were also conducted. Changes in rubber dust exposures ranged from -6.3 %/year (crude materials/mixing) to -1.0 %/year (curing) and -6.5 %/year (crude materials/mixing) to +0.5 %/year (finishing, assembly and miscellaneous) for rubber fumes. Declines in n-Nitrosamines ranged from -17.9 %/year (curing) to -1.3 %/year (crude materials and mixing). Mean LCEs were 61 mg/m3-years (rubber dust), 15.6 mg/ m3-years (rubber fumes), 2483.2 µg/m3-years (n-Nitrosamines sum score), 18.6 µg/m3-years (N-nitrosodimethylamine) and 15.0 µg/m3-years (N-itrosomorpholine). All exposures declined over time. Greatest declines in rubber dust and fumes were found in crude materials and mixing and for n-Nitrosamines in curing/vulcanising and preprocessing. This JEM and estimated LCEs will allow for evaluation of exposure-specific excess cancer risks in the British rubber industry. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

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