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Jack of all trades? The versatility of RNA in DNA double-strand break repair.

Authors
  • Ketley, Ruth F1
  • Gullerova, Monika1
  • 1 Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Essays in biochemistry
Publication Date
Oct 26, 2020
Volume
64
Issue
5
Pages
721–735
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1042/EBC20200008
PMID: 32618336
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The mechanisms by which RNA acts in the DNA damage response (DDR), specifically in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), are emerging as multifaceted and complex. Different RNA species, including but not limited to; microRNA (miRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), RNA:DNA hybrid structures, the recently identified damage-induced lncRNA (dilncRNA), damage-responsive transcripts (DARTs), and DNA damage-dependent small RNAs (DDRNAs), have been shown to play integral roles in the DSB response. The diverse properties of these RNAs, such as sequence, structure, and binding partners, enable them to fulfil a variety of functions in different cellular contexts. Additionally, RNA can be modified post-transcriptionally, a process which is regulated in response to cellular stressors such as DNA damage. Many of these mechanisms are not yet understood and the literature contradictory, reflecting the complexity and expansive nature of the roles of RNA in the DDR. However, it is clear that RNA is pivotal in ensuring the maintenance of genome integrity. In this review, we will discuss and summarise recent evidence which highlights the roles of these various RNAs in preserving genomic integrity, with a particular focus on the emerging role of RNA in the DSB repair response. © 2020 The Author(s).

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