Nucleic acid nanotechnology has enabled researchers to construct a wide range of multidimensional structures in vitro. Until recently, most DNA-based structures were assembled by thermal annealing using high magnesium concentrations and nonphysiological environments. Here, we describe a DNA self-assembly system that can be tuned to form a complex target structure isothermally at any prescribed temperature or homogeneous condition within a wide range. We were able to achieve isothermal assembly between 15 and 69 °C in a predictable fashion by altering the strength of strand-strand interactions in several different ways, for example, domain length, GC content, and linker regions between domains. We also observed the assembly of certain structures under biocompatible conditions, that is, at physiological pH, temperature, and salinity in the presence of the molecular crowding agent polyethylene glycol (PEG) mimicking the cellular environment. This represents an important step toward the self-assembly of geometrically precise DNA or RNA structures in vivo.