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ISOMAP and machine learning algorithms for the construction of embedded functional connectivity networks of anatomically separated brain regions from resting state fMRI data of patients with Schizophrenia

Authors
  • Gallos, Ioannis K
  • Gkiatis, Kostakis
  • Matsopoulos, George K
  • Siettos, Constantinos
Type
Published Article
Journal
AIMS Neuroscience
Publisher
AIMS Press
Publication Date
Feb 19, 2021
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
295–321
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3934/Neuroscience.2021016
PMID: 33709030
PMCID: PMC7940114
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Research Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

We construct Functional Connectivity Networks (FCN) from resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) recordings towards the classification of brain activity between healthy and schizophrenic subjects using a publicly available dataset (the COBRE dataset) of 145 subjects (74 healthy controls and 71 schizophrenic subjects). First, we match the anatomy of the brain of each individual to the Desikan-Killiany brain atlas. Then, we use the conventional approach of correlating the parcellated time series to construct FCN and ISOMAP, a nonlinear manifold learning algorithm to produce low-dimensional embeddings of the correlation matrices. For the classification analysis, we computed five key local graph-theoretic measures of the FCN and used the LASSO and Random Forest (RF) algorithms for feature selection. For the classification we used standard linear Support Vector Machines. The classification performance is tested by a double cross-validation scheme (consisting of an outer and an inner loop of “Leave one out” cross-validation (LOOCV)). The standard cross-correlation methodology produced a classification rate of 73.1%, while ISOMAP resulted in 79.3%, thus providing a simpler model with a smaller number of features as chosen from LASSO and RF, namely the participation coefficient of the right thalamus and the strength of the right lingual gyrus.

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