Bacteria continue to evade existing antibiotics by acquiring resistance by various mechanisms, leading to loss of antibiotic effectiveness. To avoid an epidemic from infections of incurable drug-resistant bacteria, new antibiotics with new modes of action are desperately needed. Using a genome-wide mechanism of action-guided whole cell screening approach based on antisense Staphylococcus aureus fitness test technology, we report herein the discovery of altersolanol P (1), a new tetrahydroanthraquinone from an unknown fungus from the Hypocreales isolated from forest litter collected in Puerto Rico. The structure was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Relative stereochemistry was established by NOESY correlations, and absolute configuration was deduced by the application of MPA ester-based methodology. Observed (1)H and (13)C NMR shifts were well aligned with the corresponding chemical shifts predicted by DFT calculations. Altersolanol P exhibited Gram-positive antibacterial activity (MIC range 1-8 μg/mL) and inhibited the growth of Gram-negative Haemophilus influenzae (MIC 2 μg/mL). The isolation, structure elucidation, and antibacterial activity of altersolanol P are described.