Dental caries is attributed to the predominance of cariogenic microorganisms. Cariogenic microorganisms are pathological factors leading to acidification of the oral microenvironment, which is related to the initiation and progression of caries. The accepted cariogenic microorganism is Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans ). However, studies have found that caries could occur in the absence of S. mutans . This study aimed to assess the presence of potentially cariogenic microorganisms in human teeth biofilm. The microorganisms were isolated from human mouth and freshly extracted human maxillary incisors extracted for reasons of caries. The isolates were sorted based on their acidogenic and aciduric properties, and the S. mutans was used as the reference strain. Four potentially cariogenic strains were selected. The selected strains were identified as Streptococcus salivarius ( S. salivarius ), Streptococcus anginosus ( S. anginosus ), Leuconostoc mesenteroides ( L. mesenteroides ), and Lactobacillus sakei ( L. sakei ) through morphological analysis followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The cariogenicity of isolates was analyzed. We show, for the first time, an association between L. sakei (present in fermented food) and dental caries. The data provide useful information on the role of lactic acid bacteria from fermented foods and oral commensal streptococci in dental caries.