The development of ω-3 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils is essential to enrich the production of functional foods. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a unique oilseed crop with much potential. Its seeds contain rich polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3). Endoplasmic reticulum -located ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid desaturases (FAD) are responsible for the biosynthesis of LA and ALA, respectively, in plant seeds. Here, we isolated two full-length FAD genes from Sacha Inchi, named PvFAD2 and PvFAD3, which encoded predicted amino acid residues of 384 and 379 in protein, respectively. Protein sequence and subcellular localization analysis revealed that they were located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that PvFAD2 and PvFAD3 could catalyze LA and ALA synthesis, respectively. The stability and catalytic efficiency of the PvFAD3 protein may be closely related to temperature. In transgenic tobacco, using seed-specific expression promoters, PvFAD2 and PvFAD3 significantly promotes the production of LA (from 68% to 70.5%) and ALA (from 0.7% to 3.1%) in seed oil. These results show that PvFAD2 and PvFAD3 do, indeed, function as crucial enzymes for PUFAs biosynthesis, and provide a key gene source for the sustainable production of lipids with tailored fatty acid compositions via genetic engineering in other oil crops. ©2020 Yang et al.