Lactobacillus bulgaricus CNRZ 397 is able to hydrolyze many amino-acyl- and dipeptidyl-beta-naphthylamides. Analysis of heat inactivation kinetics, protease inhibitor effects, and the subcellular location of aminopeptidase (AP) activities from the parental strain and mutant derivatives dificient in alanyl- or leucyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis pointed out the existence of four APs. All mutants isolated were totally deficient in AP II, a cell wall metallo-enzyme with a broad substrate specificity but that is specifically responsible for lysyl-AP activity and is characterized by a molecular mass of 95,000 daltons. AP I and AP III are cytoplasmic enzymes that exhibit arginyl-AP activity; both enzymes are inducible during growth in rich peptide MRS medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). The existence of a fourth AP (AP IV) that is involved in leucyl-AP activity was suggested. Moreover, we showed that X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-AP activity, which was not catalyzed by an AP, involved an enzyme(s) that is controlled by a regulatory mechanism that is common to that of AP II.