We describe the isolation and development of 17 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci for the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris). All loci were polymorphic in the 30 individuals tested. The number of alleles per variable locus ranged from 6 to 18, with a mean of 11.71. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.467 to 1.000 and from 0.540 to 0.929, respectively. Eight loci were found to have deviated from HWE in the sampled population after Bonferroni correction. Linkage disequilibrium tests revealed significant linkage between two loci (LLW5 and LL27). These microsatellite loci will be useful for revealing population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogeography of the Chinese longsnout catfish.