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Isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterium in a child: a case report and review of the literature.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
0165-5876
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
55
Issue
1
Pages
65–68
Identifiers
PMID: 10996239
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Isolated endobronchial lesions caused by Mycobacterium avium are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We share the case of a 10-month-old boy who, after 1 week of cough and low-grade fever, had a radiographic examination showing endobronchial obstruction. At bronchoscopy, a granuloma of the left bronchus intermedius was found. Histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Kinyoun Acid Fast stain revealed acid fast bacilli. Cultures were positive for M. avium. Current treatment options and controversies are presented. The roles of antibiotics and steroids in preventing progressive disease are discussed. The need for serial bronchoscopy and the potential benefits of surgical resection are discussed. Isolated endobronchial M. avium infection remains a rare and challenging problem. The paucity of clinical experience, and variation in patient presentation, obligates a high index of suspicion, and frequent follow-up with bronchoscopic examination and pulmonary assessment, for the child diagnosed with isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterial infection.

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