Fe deficiency has negative effects on voluntary physical activity (PA); however, the impact of consuming Fe-biofortified staple foods on voluntary PA remains unclear. This study compared the effects of consuming Fe-biofortified pearl millet or a conventional pearl millet on measures of voluntary PA in Indian schoolchildren (ages 12-16 years) during a 6-month randomised controlled feeding trial. PA data were collected from 130 children using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for 6 d at baseline and endline. Minutes spent in light and in moderate-to-vigorous PA were calculated from accelerometer counts using Crouter's refined two-regression model for children. Mixed regression models adjusting for covariates were used to assess relationships between intervention treatment or change in Fe status and PA. Children who consumed Fe-biofortified pearl millet performed 22·3 (95 % CI 1·8, 42·8, P = 0·034) more minutes of light PA each day compared with conventional pearl millet. There was no effect of treatment on moderate-to-vigorous PA. The amount of Fe consumed from pearl millet was related to minutes spent in light PA (estimate 3·4 min/mg Fe (95 % CI 0·3, 6·5, P = 0·031)) and inversely related to daily sedentary minutes (estimate -5·4 min/mg Fe (95 % CI -9·9, -0·9, P = 0·020)). Consuming Fe-biofortified pearl millet increased light PA and decreased sedentary time in Indian schoolchildren in a dose-dependent manner.