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Iron deficiency in healthy 18-month-old Danish children is associated with no oral iron supplementation in infancy and prolonged exclusive breast-feeding.

Authors
  • Andersen, Anh Thao N1
  • Husby, Steffen1, 2
  • Kyhl, Henriette B2, 3
  • Sandberg, Maria B4
  • Sander, Stine D1
  • Mølgaard, Christian1, 2, 5
  • 1 Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 2 Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Kloevervaenget 23C, 5000 Odense, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 3 Open Patient Data Explorative Network, J.B. Winsløws Vej 9 a, 3. etage, 5000 Odense, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 4 Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Kløvervænget 47, 5000 Odense, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 5 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark. , (Denmark)
Type
Published Article
Journal
British Journal Of Nutrition
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Publication Date
Dec 28, 2019
Volume
122
Issue
12
Pages
1409–1416
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114519002496
PMID: 31566157
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Fe deficiency (ID) defined as plasma ferritin <12 µg/l is associated with delayed cognitive development in early childhood and increased incidence of infections; however, the longitudinal association between early-life factors and ID in 18-month-old children in Denmark is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ID and to describe risk factors associated with ID in healthy 18-month-old Danish children. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaire data had been obtained in the birth cohort, Odense Child Cohort. The questionnaires were modified from those used in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Plasma ferritin and C-reactive protein in venous, non-fasting samples were analysed in the final sample size of 370 children after exclusion of seventy-nine children due to chronic disease, acute infection, C-reactive protein >10 mg/l, twin birth or prematurity. Associations with ID were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, maternal education, duration of partial breast-feeding and current intake of milk, fish and meat. Overall, fifty-six children had ID (15·1 %). Factors associated with increased risk were exclusive breast-feeding beyond 4 months (OR 5·97; 95 % CI 1·63, 21·86) and no intake of oral Fe supplements from 6 to 12 months (OR 3·99, 95 % CI 1·33, 11·97. Duration of partial breast-feeding and current diet was not associated with ID. In conclusion, the ID prevalence was 15·1 %, and both exclusive breast-feeding beyond 4 months and no intake of oral Fe supplements from 6 to 12 months were associated with increased risk of ID in 18-month-old children.

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