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Investigation of Varying Particle Sizes of Dry-Deposited WO3 Particles in Relation to Performance of Electrochromic Cell

  • Kim, Kwangmin1
  • Choi, Dahyun1
  • Kim, Hyungsub1
  • Lee, Minji1
  • Chu, Wonshik2
  • Ahn, Sung-Hoon2
  • Chun, Doo-Man3
  • Lee, Caroline Sunyong1
  • 1 Hanyang University, Department of Materials Engineering, 5th Engineering Building, Room 312, 55, Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 15588, Republic of Korea , Gyeonggi-do (South Korea)
  • 2 Seoul National University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Building 301, Room 1405, 1, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 3 University of Ulsan, School of Mechanical Engineering, Building 2, Room 421, 93, Daehak-ro, Nam-gu, Ulsan, 44610, Republic of Korea , Ulsan (South Korea)
Published Article
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology
Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Publication Date
Jul 12, 2018
DOI: 10.1007/s40684-018-0043-4
Springer Nature


Electrochromic cells were fabricated via a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) using different particle sizes of monoclinic tungsten oxide (WO3). Mixtures of micro- and nano-sized WO3 powders in the ratios of WO3 (micro):WO3 (nano) = 9:1, 5 : 5 and 1 : 9 vol%, were used in this study. NPDS, which was used to fabricate the electrochromic layer, is a low-cost process that can cover a large deposition area and provides a highly porous film. This method can replace sol-gel and sputtering methods, which are expensive and have environmental issues. The WO3 electrochromic layers displayed different surface structures that could adsorb Li+ ions. The transmittance change, cyclic switching speed and coloration efficiency (CE) results demonstrated that the electrochromic cell made with the mixed WO3 (micro):WO3 (nano) powders had better performance than that of the electrochromic cell made with separate micro-sized single powders. Various analyses showed that the WO3 mixed powders contained larger sites for Li+ ion adsorption compared with the single-sized powder because of a structure consisting of a compact layer of micro-WO3 with a porous layer of nano-WO3. Consequently, a cell composed of mixed-particle electrochromic layer showed higher transmittance change, CE and electrochromic performance than a cell made with a micro-sized single powder.

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