BackgroundBefore radioiodine therapy for Graves’ disease, the estimated thyroid-absorbed dose is calculated based on various clinical parameters. However, the actual accumulation of iodine in the thyroid during radioiodine therapy is not determined. We validated the feasibility of post-therapeutic image-based thyroid dosimetry through quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and thyroid biokinetics and expanding the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee’s (MIRD) voxel dosimetry guidelines.MethodsForty-three patients with Graves’ disease who underwent radioiodine therapy were chosen as subjects for this retrospective analysis. We acquired patients’ SPECT images 24 h after oral administration. SPECT images were quantified using system volume sensitivity to calculate time-integrated activity coefficients on a voxel basis. Absorbed dose was obtained by convolving MIRD guideline voxel S values with time-integrated activity coefficients. To determine accuracy, we compared the results obtained using the post-therapeutic image-based absorbed-dose method (D̅image,PVC) with absorbed doses calculated using the method described by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (pre-therapeutic method; DEANM).ResultsUsing image-based dosimetry as post-therapeutic dosimetry, we visualized the local accumulation and absorbed dose distribution of iodine in the thyroid. Furthermore, we determined a strong correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.89) between both dosimetries, using the regression equation: D̅image,PVC = 0.94 × DEANM + 1.35.ConclusionPost-therapeutic image-based doses absorbed in the thyroid resembled those of pre-therapeutic EANM method-based absorbed doses. Additionally, the post-therapeutic image-based method had the advantage of visualizing thyroid iodine distribution, thus determining local dose distributions at the time of treatment. From these points, we propose that post-therapeutic image-based dosimetry could provide an alternative to standard pre-therapeutic dosimetry to evaluate dose response.