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An investigation on the oxidation behavior of spatters generated during the laser powder bed fusion of 316L stainless steel

  • Lu, Chao
  • Zhang, Ruihua
  • Wei, Xiaohong
  • Xiao, Mengzhi
  • Yin, Yan
  • Qu, Yuebo
  • Li, Hui
  • Liu, Pengyu
  • Qiu, Xiaopan
  • Guo, Tieming
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2022
Institutional Repository of Institute of Process Engineering, CAS (IPE-IR)
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The characterization of the oxide islands on the surface of the spatter contributes to a fundamental understanding of the formation and oxidation of spatter in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). In the present study, the surface and cross-section characteristics of spatters with oxide islands are investigated using high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The oxide islands with different configurations on the spatter surface are divided into three main categories: hemispherical, disc-like and film-like. Moreover, the primary component of oxide islands is an amorphous SiO2, which may also contain MnO, MnSiO3, and Mn2SiO4. Furthermore, a transition layer (enriched in Si, Mn, and O) is found at the oxide islands || spatter substrate interface, and the width of which is 4 mu m and 20 nm on the spatter surface and within the spatter cross-section, respectively. Besides, the composition and sources of the circular oxide nano-inclusions (50-600 nm) internal to the spatters are also discussed in detail. Eventually, the driving forces affecting the formation of oxide islands on the surface of spatters are summarized, and a schematic diagram of the formation procedure is developed.

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