Nanomaterials have gained much attention for their use and benefit in several fields. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONPs) have been used in Biomedicine as contrast agents for imaging cancer cells. However, several studies reported the potential toxicity of those nanoparticles in different models, especially in cells. Therefore, in our present study, we investigated the effects of IONPs on the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. We carried out cytotoxic and genotoxic studies to evaluate the phenotypic effects, and proteomic investigation to evaluate the molecular effects and the mechanisms by which this kind of NPs could induce toxicity. Our results showed that the use of three different sizes of IONPs (14, 22 and 30 nm) induced cell detachment, cell morphological changes, size, and concentration-dependent IONP internalization and cell mortality. IONPs induced slight genotoxic damage assayed by modified comet assay without affecting cell cycle, mitochondrial function, membrane integrity, intracellular calcium level, and without inducing ROS generation. All the studies were performed to compare also the effects of IONPs to the ferric iron by incubating cells with equivalent concentration of FeCl3. In all tests, the NPs exhibited more toxicity than the ferric iron. The proteomic analysis followed by gene ontology and pathway analysis evidenced the effects of IONPs on cytoskeleton, cell apoptosis, and cancer development. Our findings provided more information about IONP effects on human cells and especially on cancer cell line.