Invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 45 patients less than 35 years old from 1980 to 1985. Thirty-two cases were Stage IB; 10, Stage IIB; and three, Stage IIIB. Twenty-two patients developed persistent or recurrent disease. Only one of these is now alive with no evidence of tumor. The mean interval from diagnosis to recurrence was 8.7 months (median of 7.0) and from diagnosis to death was 14.7 months (median of 12.0). Eleven of 32 patients with Stage IB disease developed a recurrence; the intervals to recurrence in Stage IB disease were similar to those for more advanced stages. Factors predicting recurrence included advanced stage of the disease and tumor bulk (maximum size, depth of invasion, and number of involved quadrants) as well as an exophytic or ulcerative tumor and a symptomatic presentation. These factors may identify the patient at high risk for recurrence who would benefit from adjuvant therapy.