Assemblages of native stream fishes in California show a remarkable ability to resist invasion by introduced fishes as long as the streams are relatively undisturbed by human activity. Previous studies had indicated a high degree of spatial (microhabitat) segregation among the native fishes, which was confirmed by a principal components analysis of microhabitat use data from Deer Creek, a tributary of the Sacramento River. A null modelling study using the same data set was performed to see if competition was a major force structuring the assemblage, because theoretical studies had indicated that a competitively structured assemblage should be most able to resist invasions. The null models indicated that competition was not the major structuring force, so it is likely the assemblages are structured through a combination of morphological specialization (reflecting evolutionary history), predation, and some competition. The assemblages resist invasion through both environmental and biotic factors. Predation seems to be an especially important biotic factor.