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Invasion Patterns and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Diffuse Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Ankle Joint.

  • Yotsuya, Kumiko1
  • Shido, Yoji1
  • Matsuyama, Yukihiro1
  • 1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, JPN.
Published Article
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2024
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.56148
PMID: 38487651


The invasion patterns and long-term outcomes of diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TSGCT) of the ankle joint remain unclear. Seven patients who visited our department between 2011 and 2023 and were diagnosed with D-TSGCT of the ankle joint by contrast-enhanced MRI and a pathological diagnosis were included. The invasion patterns of ankle D-TSGCT on MRI were investigated. The recurrence rate and clinical symptoms were examined in five patients followed up for more than seven years after total resection. In seven patients (1 male/6 females, mean age 37.0±16.6 years, range 15-57 years) with D-TSGCT of the ankle joint, contrast-enhanced MRI at the initial presentation showed invasion within the ankle joint, extending along the tendon sheath, within the talocalcaneal joint, and in the tarsal sinus in 100% of cases, around the deltoid ligament in 86%, within the plantar surface in 43%, invasion of the interosseous membrane in 57%, around the Achilles tendon in 29%, and scalloping on the talocrural joint in 43%. The mean time from mass awareness to the first visit was 51.9±80.0 months (range 1-240 months). Gross total resection, defined as the removal of all tumors as gauged by MRI, was initially performed on 6/7 patients. One patient underwent partial resection of only the anterior part of the tumor. Of the six cases in which gross total resection was performed, 5 had long-term follow-up of more than seven years post-operatively, and one case is still only one year post-operatively. The long-term results of five patients followed for more than seven years after total resection were as follows: a mean follow-up period of 125 months (range 89-171 months), a 100% recurrence rate, a mean time to recurrence of 27.5±19.2 months (range 7-60 months), and a 16% reoperation rate. In the last follow-up, osteoarthritic changes were observed radiographically in 2/5 patients (40%), both of whom had scalloping of the talocrural joint on MRI at the time of the initial diagnosis. Four of the five patients (80%) had no clinical symptoms in the last follow-up. Ankle D-TSGCT presents with a strong local infiltrative pattern inside and outside the ankle joint along the tendon sheath, radical resection may be difficult, and the recurrence rate may be higher than previously reported. On the other hand, there are many cases that remain free of clinical symptoms in the long term after recurrence, and surgical indications for ankle D-TSGCT need to consider function preservation as well as recurrence rates. Copyright © 2024, Yotsuya et al.

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