As the introduction of the volume co-edited by the authors and entitled ‘Internet Diplomacy: Shaping the Global Politics of Cyberspace’, this chapter sets the scene for the discussion about Cyber Diplomacy. It provides an overview of the most recent threat vectors, discusses their evolution, and present the main policy dilemmas in the global internet governance domain. The chapter then presents an overview of the theoretical approaches that have so far attempted to explain these developments. This is even more relevant in the case of the European Union policymaking and on the emerging of an EU Cyber Diplomacy capacity. Subsequently, this chapter provides a clear framework and definition of Internet Diplomacy, and describes the analytical framework for the book. Finally, it presents all the subsequent chapters.