Sex differences in liver gene expression are dictated by sex differences in circulating GH profiles. Presently, the pituitary hormone dependence of mouse liver gene expression was investigated on a global scale to discover sex-specific early GH response genes that could contribute to sex-specific regulation of downstream GH targets and to ascertain whether intrinsic sex differences characterize hepatic responses to plasma GH stimulation. Global RNA expression analysis identified two distinct classes of sex-specific mouse liver genes: genes subject to positive regulation (class I) and genes subject to negative regulation by pituitary hormones (class II). Genes activated or repressed in hypophysectomized (Hypox) mouse liver within 30-90 min of GH pulse treatment at a physiological dose were identified as putative direct targets of GH action (early response genes). Intrinsic sex differences in the GH responsiveness of a subset of these early response genes were observed. Notably, 45 male-specific genes, including five encoding transcriptional regulators that may mediate downstream sex-specific transcriptional responses, were induced by GH within 30 min in Hypox male but not Hypox female mouse liver. The early GH response genes were enriched in 29 male-specific targets of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2, whose activation in hepatic stellate cells is associated with liver fibrosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma, a male-predominant disease. Thus, the rapid activation by GH pulses of certain sex-specific genes is modulated by intrinsic sex-specific factors, which may be associated with prior hormone exposure (epigenetic mechanisms) or genetic factors that are pituitary-independent, and could contribute to sex differences in predisposition to liver cancer or other hepatic patho-physiologies.