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Intraspecific Variability in the Toxin Production and Toxin Profiles of In Vitro Cultures of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae) from French Polynesia

Authors
  • Longo, Sébastien1
  • Sibat, Manoella2
  • Viallon, Jérôme1
  • Darius, Hélène Taiana1
  • Hess, Philipp2
  • Chinain, Mireille1
  • 1 (M.C.)
  • 2 (P.H.)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxins
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Dec 17, 2019
Volume
11
Issue
12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/toxins11120735
PMID: 31861242
PMCID: PMC6950660
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Green

Abstract

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa . The toxin production and toxin profiles were explored in four clones of G. polynesiensis originating from different islands in French Polynesia with contrasted CP risk: RIK7 (Mangareva, Gambier), NHA4 (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas), RAI-1 (Raivavae, Australes), and RG92 (Rangiroa, Tuamotu). Productions of CTXs, maitotoxins (MTXs), and gambierone group analogs were examined at exponential and stationary growth phases using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. While none of the strains was found to produce known MTX compounds, all strains showed high overall P-CTX production ranging from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 4.6 ± 0.7 pg cell−1. In total, nine P-CTX analogs were detected, depending on strain and growth phase. The production of gambierone, as well as 44-methylgamberione, was also confirmed in G. polynesiensis . This study highlighted: (i) intraspecific variations in toxin production and profiles between clones from distinct geographic origins and (ii) the noticeable increase in toxin production of both CTXs, in particular CTX4A/B, and gambierone group analogs from the exponential to the stationary phase.

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