Intraoperative Neurophysiological Mo-nitoring (IONM) identifies eloquent areas or nerves fibers during neurosurgical interventions and monitors their function. For several interventions IONM has become mandatory in neurosurgery. IONM increases patient safety during surgery as the risk of neurological deficits is reduced. Safer surgery reduces the time needed for the intervention and thereby reduces risk. IONM contributes to complete resection of tumors, which in turn prolongs patients' survival. Complicated surgical interventions associated with an elevated risk of neurological deficits have only become possible due to IONM. IONM comprises a variety of procedures that are selected for a particular intervention. With appropriate selection of the procedures IONM has been shown to improve neurological and functional outcome after neurosurgical interventions.