To evaluate whether intraoperative autologous transfusion increases the risk of hematogenous dissemination of tumor we reviewed the risk of lung metastasis as well as disease-free and long-term survival of patients who underwent resection of malignant hepatic neoplasms with this technique. A retrospective review of patients undergoing liver resection for malignant disease revealed 39 patients in whom intraoperative autologous transfusion was used. The 2-year actuarial survival in the patients in this series, as calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, was predicted to be 75%. Two-year actuarial disease-free survival was predicted to be 28%, and the risk of developing lung metastasis at 3 years was estimated to be 40%. The predicted overall survival and risk of recurrence in this series compare favorably with published data for patients in whom intraoperative autologous transfusion was not used.