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intI1 gene abundance from septic tanks in Thailand using validated intI1 primers

Authors
  • Okonkwo, Valentine
  • Cholet, Fabien
  • Ijaz, Umer Z.
  • Koottatep, Thammarat
  • Pussayanavin, Tatchai
  • Polpraset, Chongrak
  • Sloan, William T.
  • Connelly, Stephanie
  • Smith, Cindy J.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Oct 24, 2023
Volume
89
Issue
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/aem.01071-23
Source
ASM Journals
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is a global crisis, and wastewater treatment, including septic tanks, remains an important source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. The role of septic tanks in disseminating class 1 integron, and by extension AMR genes, in Thailand, where antibiotic use is unregulated remains understudied. We aimed to monitor gene abundance as a proxy to infer potential AMR from septic tanks in Thailand. We evaluated published intI1 primers due to the lack of consensus on optimal Q-PCR primers and the absence of standardization. Our findings confirmed septic tanks are a source of class 1 integron to the environment. We highlighted the significance of intI1 primer choice, in the context of interpretation of risk associated with AMR spread from septic tanks. We recommend the validated set (F3-R3) for optimal intI1 quantification toward the goal of achieving standardization across studies.

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