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Intestinal sensing of nutrients.

Authors
  • Tolhurst, Gwen
  • Reimann, Frank
  • Gribble, Fiona M
Type
Published Article
Journal
Handbook of experimental pharmacology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2012
Issue
209
Pages
309–335
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-24716-3_14
PMID: 22249821
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Ingestion of a meal triggers a range of physiological responses both within and outside the gut, and results in the remote modulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Luminal contents are sensed by specialised chemosensitive cells scattered throughout the intestinal epithelium. These enteroendocrine and tuft cells make direct contact with the gut lumen and release a range of chemical mediators, which can either act in a paracrine fashion interacting with neighbouring cells and nerve endings or as classical circulating hormones. At the molecular level, the chemosensory machinery involves multiple and complex signalling pathways including activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and solute carrier transporters. This chapter will discuss our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal chemosensation with a particular focus on the relatively well-characterised nutrient-triggered secretion from the enteroendocrine system.

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