Inflammatory bowel disease is triggered by an uncontrolled immune response associated with genetic, environmental, and intestinal microbiota imbalance. Ipomoea asarifolia (IA), popularly known as “salsa” or “brave salsa”, belongs to the Convolvulaceae family. The aim of this approach was to study the preventive effect of IA aqueous extract in 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Rats pretreated with IA extract or sulfasalazine (SSZ) received intracolonic instillation of DNBS in 50% ethanol (v/v). IA extract presented a protective effect against intestinal inflammation, with improvement in the disease activity index and macroscopic damage. IA or SSZ significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity, and also down-regulation of the gene expression of JNK1, NF-κβ-p65, STAT3, and decreased levels of TNFα, IL-1β, and increased IL-10, associated with a significant improvement of oxidative stress, in addition to a reduction in MDA and an increase of glutathione in colonic tissue. The protective effect of the extract was also confirmed in histological evaluation, showing preservation of the colonic cytoarchitecture. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed down-regulation of NF-κβ-p65, iNOS, IL-17, and up-regulation of SOCs-1 and MUC-2. IA extract presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intestinal properties, and proved to be a potential application for preventing damage induced by DNBS.