The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can play a direct role in glucose homeostasis by modulating the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and by producing the incretin hormones. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. Changes in the number of incretin- (GLP-1, GIP) producing cells have been reported which could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. Additionally, the rate of absorption and the intestinal regions exposed to sugars may affect the time course of appearance of glucose in the blood. This review gives new insights into the direct role of the GI tract in the metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery, in the context of glucose homeostasis.