Intervalley GAMMA-X deformation-potential constants (IVDP's) have been calculated by use of a first-principles pseudopotential method for the III-V zinc-blende semiconductors AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb. When the calculated IVDP's of LA phonons for GaP, InP, and InAs and of LO phonons for AlAs, AlSb, GaAs, GaSb, and InSb are compared with results of a previous calculation that used the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM) and a rigid-ion approximation, good agreement is found. However, our ab initio pseudopotential results on IVDP's of LA phonons for AlAs, AlSb, GaAs, GaSb, and InSb and of LO phonons for GaP, InP, and InAs are about one order of magnitude smaller than those obtained by use of EPM calculations, indicating that the electron redistribution accompanying crystal-lattice deformation has a significant effect on GAMMA-X intervalley scattering for these phonon modes when the anions are being displaced. In our calculations the LA- and LO-phonon modes at the X point have been evaluated in the frozen-phonon approximation. We have also obtained the LAX- and LOX-phonon frequencies for these materials from total-energy calculations, which agree very well with experimental values for these semiconductors. We have also calculated GAMMA-X hole-phonon scattering matrix elements for the top valence bands in these nine semiconductors, from which the GAMMA-X IVDP's of the top valence bands for the longitudinal phonons and transverse phonons are evaluated, respectively.