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Intertwined Vestigial Order in Quantum Materials: Nematicity and Beyond

Authors
  • Fernandes, Rafael M.
  • Orth, Peter P.
  • Schmalian, Jörg
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Mar 10, 2019
Volume
10
Pages
133–154
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-conmatphys-031218-013200
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
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Abstract

A hallmark of the phase diagrams of quantum materials is the existence of multiple electronic ordered states, which, in many cases, are not independent competing phases, but instead display a complex intertwinement. In this review, we focus on a particular realization of intertwined orders: a primary phase characterized by a multi-component order parameter and a fluctuation-driven vestigial phase characterized by a composite order parameter. This concept has been widely employed to elucidate nematicity in iron-based and cuprate superconductors. Here we present a group-theoretical framework that extends this notion to a variety of phases, providing a classification of vestigial orders of unconventional superconductors and density waves. Electronic states with scalar and vector chiral order, spin-nematic order, Ising-nematic order, time-reversal symmetry-breaking order, and algebraic vestigial order emerge from one underlying principle. The formalism provides a framework to understand the complexity of quantum materials based on symmetry, largely without resorting to microscopic models.

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