Intimate partner violence (IPV) may increase risk for HIV/AIDS among women engaging in transactional sex in Ugandan fishing communities. In this cross-sectional study, 115 women reporting engaging in transactional sex in Lake Victoria fishing communities completed a computerized interview. We tested associations between IPV and other HIV risk factors, with unprotected sex and HIV status, and tested moderators of the IPV-HIV risk relationship. Women reporting recent sexual IPV reported 3.36 times more unprotected sex acts (AdjExp[B] = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.29-8.69, p = 0.07). The effect of sexual IPV on sexual risk was significantly greater among alcohol and fish sellers compared to sex workers (interaction: Exp[B] = 12.29, 95% CI = 5.06-29.85, p < 0.001). Women reporting any sexual IPV were nearly four times more likely to report being HIV positive than women reporting no sexual IPV (AOR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.22-12.66, p = 0.02). Integrated IPV and HIV interventions are needed in this context, especially among alcohol and fish sellers engaging in transactional sex.