The model of three-layer olivary-cerebellar neural network with modifiable excitatory and inhibitory connections between diverse elements is suggested. The same Hebbian modification rules are proposed for Purkinje cells, granule (input) cells, and deep cerebellar nuclei (output) cells. The inverse calcium-dependent modification rules for these cells and hippocampal/neocortical neurones or Golgi cells are conceivably the result of the involvement of cGMP and cAMP in postsynaptic processes. The sign of simultaneous modification of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to a cell is opposite and determined by the variations in pre- and/or postsynaptic cell activity. Modification of excitatory transmission between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, mossy fibers and granule cells, and mossy fibers and deep cerebellar nuclei cells essentially depends on inhibition effected by stellate/basket cells, Golgi cells and Purkinje cells, respectively. The character of interrelated modifications of diverse synapses in all three layers of the network is influenced by olivary cell activity. In the absence (presence) of a signal from inferior olive, the long-term potentiation (depression) in the efficacy of a synapse between input mossy fiber and output cell can be induced. The results of the suggested model are in accordance with known experimental data.