The understanding of the detailed molecular interactions between (GSH) glutathione molecules in the assembly of metal nanoparticles is important for the exploitation of the biological reactivity. We report herein results of an investigation of the assembly of gold nanoparticles mediated by glutathione and the disassembly under controlled conditions. The interparticle interactions and reactivities were characterized by monitoring the evolution of the surface plasmon resonance band using the spectrophotometric method and the hydrodynamic sizes of the nanoparticle assemblies using the dynamic light scattering technique. The interparticle reactivity of glutathiones adsorbed on gold nanoparticles depends on the particle sizes and the ionic strength of the solution. Larger-sized particles were found to exhibit a higher degree of interparticle assembly than smaller-sized particles. The assembly-disassembly reversibility is shown to be highly dependent on pH and additives in the solution. The interactions of the negatively charged citrates surrounding the GSH monolayer on the particle surface were believed to produce more effective interparticle spatial and electrostatic isolation than the case of OH (-) groups surrounding the GSH monolayer. The results have provided new insights into the hydrogen-bonding character of the interparticle molecular interaction of glutathiones bound on gold nanoparticles. The fact that the interparticle hydrogen-bonding interactions in the assembly and disassembly processes can be finely tuned by pH and chemical means has implications to the exploitation of the glutathione-nanoparticle system in biological detection and biosensors.